In Italy in fear of Communism a fascist was helped to power by the extreme nationalist groups. The political disruption surrounding World War I also contributed to the fall of four venerable imperial dynasties—Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia and Turkey.
France annexed Alsace and Lorraine which it had ceded to Germany as a result of the Franco-Prussian warand France decided that the Rhine River would form the border between France and Germany.
Both sides dug into trenches, and the Western Front was the setting for a hellish war of attrition that would last more than three years. Particularly long and costly battles in this campaign were fought at Verdun February-December and the Battle of the Somme July-November The Covenant of the League of Nations committed all its members to work toward universal disarmament.
In Germany the Weimar Republic lasted until hitler came to power in The blitzkrieg was a newtype of military attack. There was a vacuum at the top during the interwar period. Treaty of Versailles At the Paris Peace Conference inAllied leaders would state their desire to build a post-war world that would safeguard itself against future conflicts of such devastating scale.
To compensate for damages caused by the war, Germany was eventually required to pay billion gold marks, in installments, up to the year The former imperial territories in Europe held by Russia, Austria, and Germany all became independent national states.
In addition, the treaty established the league of nations, which the United States senate refused to ratify because of its largely isolationist policies.
InGermany declared the waters surrounding the British Isles to be a war zone, and German U-boats sunk several commercial and passenger vessels, including some U. Small national fractions were isolated in the territory of other states.
America Enters World War I At the outbreak of fighting inthe United States remained on the sidelines of World War I, adopting the policy of neutrality favored by President Woodrow Wilson while continuing to engage in commerce and shipping with European countries on both sides of the conflict.
The revolutionary regime tried to continue the fight, but economic conditions and military capability deteriorated sharply.
Meanwhile, Bosnia, where Franz Ferdinand met his untimely end, is as unstable today as it was then. Germany ended up paying and taking blame for the War. Soon, the major powers were aligned against each other, turning the conflict into a major world war.
Yugoslavia, a multi-ethnic state made up of Slavic nations, some Hungarians, and ethnic Albanians from Kosovo, was cobbled together from already-independent Serbia and Montenegro and bits of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires. Of these,died andwere wounded. In areas that were occupied by the Soviet armies, communistgovernments were able to exert their influence, and countries thatwere not already part of the Soviet Union came under its dominationbehind the Iron Curtain.
How did nationalism help ignite World War 1 in Europe? Although the virus was known during the war, most deaths were during the yearwhen over 50 million people died worldwide.
It destroyed cities and infrastructure in the area wherefighting or bombing occurred. This was consistent with the demand expressed by U.
Why was Europe involved in World War 1? This unfolding drama is being watched in other regions of Spain such as the Basque country, where there are similar separatist impulses. Early YearsEuropeans were fighting heavily on two fronts before the U.
The German and Austro-Hungarian empires were fractured into small countries that would later have huge social and other unrest such as Czechoslovakia. Germany sunk four more U. Poland was overrun and divided between Germany and the Soviet Union before its allies were able to help.
Germany was not present at the treaty of Versailles, but was rather forced into obeying it. Gallipoli Campaign With World War I having effectively settled into a stalemate in Europe, the Allies attempted to score a victory against the Ottoman Empire, which entered the conflict on the side of the Central Powers in late Fears of suddenly finding themselves outside the EU and its million citizen-strong single market seems to be giving Scots second thoughts.
The war and the Holocaust had resulted in decimation of ethnicpopulations. The Bolshevik dictatorship was led by Lenin, later by Stalin. Facing dwindling resources on the battlefield, discontent on the homefront and the surrender of its allies, Germany was finally forced to seek an armistice on November 11,ending World War I.
The severe effects that chemical weapons such as mustard gas and phosgene had on soldiers and civilians during World War I galvanized public and military attitudes against their continued use.
At Versailles, the foundations were laid for the League of Nations, which was committed to isolating international aggression and providing a framework for the peaceful resolution of conflicts.
Economically, it consumed the resources of all of the countriesinvolved. All German colonies were taken and distributed as mandates to the victorious powers. The end of the war produced a paradox of crisis coexisting with a mood of optimism about the future.The end of the war transformed the political geography of Europe and the Middle East.
After the fall of the Russian Empire, the German, Austrian, and Ottoman Turkish empires also disappeared. They were replaced by new, small states from the Baltic Sea to the Suez Canal.
(See before and after maps of Europe below.) “The Great War” also sowed the seeds for World War II (), which also resulted in territorial change, although fewer. Both the war and the peace that followed have marked our world in indelible ways.
Even the Second World War did not solve all the border problems. The peace lasted longer, but as soon as the Soviet Empire fell apart, new conflicts broke out.
Again, the maps had to be redrawn. List of national border changes since World War I refers to changes in borders between nations during or since For information on border changes from the end of the Napoleonic Wars tosee List of national border changes from to This is a list of significant boundary changes with countries.
World War I involved 32 nations from to It redrew the world map and reshaped many borders in Europe.
The collapse of the Russian Empire created Poland, the Baltics, and Finland. The.Download